Best Vitamins to Take Daily

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Best Vitamins to Take Daily - MY CONCIERGE MD

Many patients asked me during the pandemic which vitamins and supplements they should be taking for optimal immune system support, antioxidant benefits, energy, gut health support, cognitive function, and overall health. I couldn’t find a daily multivitamin that had all the essential vitamins that I thought were important, and thus VitaminMD was born! VitaminMD was formulated based on a review of the medical literature in order to create the best multivitamin that contains the correct dosing and essential nutrients.

In this article, I will review the importance and benefits of the micronutrients and supplements that one should be taking and review the relevant medical research. You will also learn about certain vitamins and supplements that have been shown to be extremely beneficial in a variety of medical conditions and that you should be taking daily. There are many vitamins and nutrients that you may not be getting through the healthy food sources you are consuming. That’s why taking multivitamin, and dietary supplements can be important to support your overall health.

Vitamin D


Vitamin D is an extremely important vitamin that is essential for the regulation of calcium and phosphate in our body. Vitamin D contributes to our bones, teeth, and muscles. We can obtain vitamin D through some foods, but it is mainly produced when our skin becomes exposed to sunlight.


According to a 2011 study, the overall prevalence rate of vitamin D deficiency in adults was 41.65%, with the highest rate seen in African Americans (82.1%) and Hispanics (69.2%). Many of us do not get enough daily sunlight, and once vitamin D levels become low, it is often difficult to restore their normal levels without supplementation. Furthermore, new research has shown that adequate vitamin D levels in labs should be 70-80 nmol and not what is considered deficient on laboratory tests which is anything below 30 nmol.

Benefits of Vitamin D Supplements

A balanced diet can help boost vitamin levels in the body, but sometimes, it’s not enough. Using dietary supplements can make a big difference in your health. Vitamin D supplementation has been shown to reduce the risk of multiple sclerosis and heart disease.

Its other health benefits also include:

  • Supporting the immune system to fight infections better
  • Relieving insomnia
  • Improving mood and helping with symptoms of depression
  • Enhancing bone health
  • Improving certain skin conditions
  • Boosting energy levels

Research demonstrates that low levels of vitamin D can increase the risk and severity of autoimmune conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease.[6]

Research on vitamin D and its use in specific conditions

Cognitive Health

There has been a lot of research published in regard to vitamin D and its role in cognitive health. A research article revealed that vitamin D prevents cognitive decline and enhances hippocampus synaptic function in aging rats. Low vitamin D levels are also a risk factor for Alzheimer’s dementia and play a role in memory. A study in the Journal of Alzheimer’s disease revealed an association between vitamin D deficiency and visual memory decline but no association with verbal memory decline.


A recent study published in Jama reviewed the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on the development of advanced cancer and found that vitamin D3 supplementation may reduce the risk of developing advanced cancer among adults without a diagnosis of cancer at baseline. A different study showed that vitamin D3 had been estimated to lower the incidence of colorectal cancer by 50%. Research also suggests that women with low levels of vitamin D have a higher risk of developing breast cancer.

Immune system

A research study published in the Journal of Investigative Medicine found that vitamin D plays an important role in the innate antimicrobial response, which includes modulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses.[1] The innate immune response is the body’s first response against pathogens. Vitamin D regulates the activity of immune cells, including neutrophils, macrophages and natural killer cells. Vitamin D acts on these cells and stimulates them to produce peptides that then help in defending the body against infections. There are a lot of other research articles that also show that vitamin D improves the function of the immune system and its health. Many diseases such as the influenza virus show a winter seasonality, in which there are more infections during the winter months. It is also known that during the winter months there is less sun exposure and lower vitamin D levels.

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Respiratory infections

There have been many studies that have looked at vitamin D’s role in immunity against respiratory infections. A systematic review of 25 randomized controlled trials showed that vitamin D supplementation dramatically reduced the risk of acute respiratory tract infections and improved outcomes.[3] Another study looking at the impact of vitamin D levels on respiratory function found that every 10 nM/L increase in vitamin D levels in the blood reduced the risk of respiratory infection by 7% and also improved outcomes.[4]

Research has also shown that vitamin D helps build immunity against the viral flu and colds. As mentioned previously, vitamin D deficiency is most prevalent in the winter months when cold, and flu prevalence is the highest. Clinical trials and studies have shown that increasing vitamin D levels and supplementation decrease incidents of influenza and respiratory virus infections.[5]


During the pandemic, a lot of research was also conducted on COVID-19 mortality and risk factors affecting outcomes. Research strongly suggests a link between vitamin D levels and the risk and severity of coronavirus outcomes and mortality. In one study, researchers found that patients over the age of 40 were 51.5% less likely to die from COVID-19 if they had at least a level of vitamin D that was equal to or greater than 30 ng/mL.[7] Another study of 185 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 found that vitamin D-deficient patients had a higher hospitalization rate and required more intensive oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation than those that had normal vitamin D levels. In regards to the patients in this study, vitamin D deficiency was associated with a 6-fold higher increase in the severity of disease and about a 15-fold higher risk of mortality.[8]

Bone health

Vitamin D plays an essential role in maintaining a healthy mineralized bone structure and helps in preventing osteopenia and osteoporosis. Aging as well as the use of sunscreen and decreased sun exposure, can dramatically affect our production of vitamin D3. Vitamin D deficiency is now being recognized as a major cause of metabolic bone disease in adults.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin that is essential for the growth, development, and repair of body tissues. It is a powerful antioxidant that helps protect cells from damage caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can harm cells and contribute to the development of chronic diseases.


Functions of Vitamin C

Vitamin C is a versatile nutrient that offers a range of health benefits. As a potent antioxidant, it helps protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. Vitamin C is also essential for collagen synthesis, the structural protein that supports the health of skin, bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Additionally, Vitamin C supports immune function by stimulating the production of white blood cells and helps the body absorb iron from plant-based foods, which is crucial for the production of red blood cells. Vitamin C is also essential for wound healing, neurotransmitter production, and promoting healthy blood vessels by promoting the production of nitric oxide, which improves blood flow.

Signs of Vitamin C Deficiency

Scurvy, or Vitamin C deficiency, is a condition typically linked to poverty and lack of access to food. Its symptoms are often easily identifiable in affected individuals. The characteristic signs of corkscrew hairs, bleeding around hair follicles, and bleeding gums are highly indicative of a deficiency in Vitamin C.

Benefits of Vitamin C Supplements

  • Boosts immune function
  • Reduces the severity and duration of colds
  • Enhances iron absorption
  • Improves skin health
  • Reduces inflammation
  • Lowers blood pressure
  • Supports cardiovascular health

Research on vitamin C and its use in specific conditions

The synthesis of collagen, L-carnitine, and certain neurotransmitters in the body requires the presence of vitamin C, while vitamin C also plays a role in protein metabolism [9].

Vitamin C plays a significant role in enhancing the immune system‘s defense mechanisms by supporting various cellular functions of both innate and adaptive immunity. It helps maintain the epithelial barrier function to protect against pathogens and also promotes the scavenging activity of the skin to prevent oxidative stress caused by environmental factors potentially. Vitamin C accumulates in phagocytic cells, especially neutrophils, and can boost their ability to perform important immune functions such as chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and generation of reactive oxygen species, thereby improving microbial killing [10].

Vitamin A

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for various functions in the body, including maintaining healthy vision, supporting the immune system, and promoting proper growth and development. It is also known as retinol and can be obtained from both animal and plant sources.


Vitamin A is a crucial nutrient that plays a variety of important roles in the body. It is essential for maintaining healthy eyesight, as it helps to support the proper functioning of the retina and other components of the visual system. Vitamin A also helps to maintain healthy skin by promoting skin cell growth, preventing dryness, and reducing the signs of aging.

In addition, it is important to promote proper growth and development, particularly in children, by supporting the development of healthy bones, teeth, and soft tissue. Vitamin A is also critical for immune function, as it helps to support the production and activity of white blood cells, which are essential for fighting off infections and diseases.

Furthermore, vitamin A plays a role in regulating gene expression, which can have wide-ranging effects on the body, including promoting tissue growth and development, regulating the immune response, and supporting overall health and wellness. Finally, vitamin A is important for reproductive health in both males and females, as it is necessary for the production of sperm and for the development of healthy fetal tissue during pregnancy.


Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems, including weakened bones, muscle weakness, and an increased risk of falls and fractures, particularly in older adults. In children, a severe deficiency can lead to rickets, a condition that causes soft and weak bones. Vitamin D deficiency has also been linked to an increased risk of certain types of cancer, autoimmune diseases, and cardiovascular disease. Additionally, vitamin D plays an important role in immune function, so a deficiency can increase the risk of infections and may contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases.

Benefits of Vitamin A Supplements

  • Supports vision
  • Boosts immune function
  • Promotes skin health
  • Improves reproductive health
  • Reduces inflammation
  • Supports bone health

Research on vitamin A and its use in specific conditions

When vitamin A availability from food is limited, infectious diseases can exacerbate vitamin A deficiency by reducing intake, absorption, and increasing excretion. In addition, infectious diseases that trigger the acute-phase response can temporarily lower serum retinol levels, making it challenging to assess vitamin A status. Vitamin A deficiency can weaken innate immunity by interfering with the normal regeneration of mucosal barriers that become damaged during infection. It can also impair the function of natural killer cells, macrophages, and neutrophils. Furthermore, vitamin A is vital for adaptive immunity and is involved in the development of both T-helper (Th) cells and B-cells [11].

Vitamin B

B, B12, and B complex are all different types of B vitamins, which are essential for various bodily functions. However, they differ in their chemical structure, dietary sources, and specific functions.

B vitamins are a group of water-soluble vitamins that are essential for energy metabolism, neurological function, and cellular growth and development. The B complex includes eight B vitamins, including thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), biotin (B7), folic acid (B9), and cobalamin (B12).

B12, or cobalamin, is one of the B complex vitamins and is the only B vitamin that contains a trace element, cobalt. B12 is primarily found in animal-based foods, such as meat, fish, and dairy products. It is important for DNA synthesis, red blood cell production, and neurological function.

The B complex vitamins work together to support many bodily functions, including energy metabolism, nerve function, skin health, and the formation of red blood cells. Each B vitamin has its own specific function, but they often work together to support overall health.


The B vitamins, which include thiamin (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), biotin (B7), folate (B9), and cobalamin (B12), are a group of essential nutrients that are involved in many important functions in the body.

These vitamins play crucial roles in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, which are the main sources of energy for the body. They also help to support the health of the nervous system, as well as the production of red blood cells and DNA.

In addition, the B vitamins are involved in the synthesis of neurotransmitters and hormones that regulate mood, appetite, and sleep. Some of the B vitamins, such as folate and cobalamin, are especially important for the proper development of the fetus during pregnancy. Overall, the B vitamins are essential for maintaining good health and preventing deficiencies that can lead to a range of health problems.


Vitamin B deficiency can lead to a range of health problems, as these vitamins play a crucial role in many bodily functions. A deficiency in B vitamins can cause anemia, as these vitamins are essential for the production of red blood cells. It can also lead to skin problems, such as dermatitis, as well as nervous system disorders like peripheral neuropathy, which can cause tingling, numbness, and pain in the hands and feet. Additionally, a deficiency in B vitamins can lead to depression and cognitive decline, as these vitamins play a role in the production of neurotransmitters that regulate mood and cognitive function. Finally, pregnant women who are deficient in B vitamins may be at increased risk for birth defects, such as neural tube defects.

Benefits of Vitamin B12 Supplements

  • Improved energy levels
  • Improved cognitive function
  • Cardiovascular health
  • Digestive health
  • Improved mood
  • Neurological health

Research on vitamin B12 and its use in specific conditions

Vitamin B12 also called cobalamin, is a type of B vitamin that plays a critical role in cellular metabolism, particularly in processes such as DNA synthesis, methylation, and mitochondrial metabolism. While clinical deficiency of B12 with typical hematological and neurological symptoms is rare, subclinical deficiency affects between 2.5% and 26% of the general population, although its clinical significance is uncertain. [12].

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble nutrient and antioxidant that plays a vital role in maintaining the health of various bodily tissues, including the skin, eyes, and immune system. It exists in eight different forms, of which alpha-tocopherol is the most biologically active form in humans.


Vitamin E is a potent antioxidant that protects cells from oxidative damage, caused by environmental factors like pollution and UV radiation. It boosts immune function, maintains healthy blood vessels, and promotes healthy skin and hair by preventing collagen and elastin breakdown. Vitamin E also reduces the risk of chronic diseases, such as heart disease, Alzheimer’s, and some cancers.


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A deficiency in vitamin E can lead to a variety of health problems. Because it is a powerful antioxidant, a deficiency in vitamin E can increase the risk of oxidative damage to cells, which can lead to chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Additionally, a lack of vitamin E can impair the functioning of the immune system, leaving individuals more susceptible to infections and illnesses. Deficiencies in vitamin E have also been linked to neurological problems, such as peripheral neuropathy and ataxia, as well as to vision problems and infertility. Skin problems, such as dryness and premature aging, may also occur in individuals with a vitamin E deficiency.

Benefits of Vitamin E Supplements

  • Antioxidant protection
  • Skin health
  • Heart health
  • Immune system support
  • Alzheimer’s disease

Research on vitamin E and its use in specific conditions

Research indicates that both topical and oral Vitamin E possesses properties that can potentially prevent the formation of tumors, protect against damage caused by sun exposure, and stabilize the skin barrier. Although Vitamin E is primarily utilized in cosmetics at present, clinical trials need to be conducted to assess its efficacy in treating conditions like atopic dermatitis or preventing photocarcinogenesis [13].


Magnesium is an essential mineral that is involved in a wide range of bodily functions. It is necessary for the proper functioning of muscles, including the heart, and plays a crucial role in maintaining a healthy nervous system.


Magnesium is an essential mineral that plays numerous roles in the body. It is involved in hundreds of enzymatic reactions and is necessary for the proper functioning of muscles, nerves, and the heart. Magnesium helps to regulate blood pressure, maintain a steady heartbeat, and support the production of energy. It also plays a role in the synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein. In addition, magnesium is important for bone health, as it helps to maintain the strength and structure of bones. It can also help to alleviate symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as improve sleep quality. Finally, magnesium has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties, and may play a role in reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and some types of cancer.


Magnesium deficiency can lead to a range of symptoms and health issues, including muscle weakness and cramps, fatigue, irritability, and difficulty sleeping. In more severe cases, magnesium deficiency can cause seizures, abnormal heart rhythms, and even personality changes. Long-term magnesium deficiency has also been linked to an increased risk of chronic diseases such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and osteoporosis. Certain populations may be more at risk for magnesium deficiency, including individuals with gastrointestinal disorders that affect nutrient absorption, people with type 2 diabetes, and those who consume high amounts of alcohol or have a diet low in magnesium-rich foods.

Benefits of Magnesium Mineral Supplements

  • Improved bone health
  • Better heart health
  • Reduced risk of type 2 diabetes
  • Improved mood and stress management
  • Relief from muscle cramps and spasms
  • Better sleep quality

Research on Magnesium and its use in specific conditions

Magnesium administration can be categorized as FDA-approved or non-FDA-approved, and it is often included in over-the-counter products. The purpose of this activity is to discuss the mechanism of action, pharmacology, adverse event profile, monitoring, and potential interactions of magnesium, which are essential for interprofessional team members in managing patients who require magnesium supplementation [14].


Calcium is a mineral that is essential for the formation and maintenance of strong bones and teeth, nerve function, muscle function, blood clotting, and enzyme activity. It is one of the most abundant minerals in the human body, with 99% of it stored in bones and teeth. The remaining 1% is present in the blood, muscle, and other tissues, where it plays vital roles in a variety of physiological processes.


Calcium is an essential mineral that is needed for a variety of bodily functions. It is perhaps best known for its role in promoting healthy bones and teeth, but it also plays a critical role in muscle function, nerve function, blood clotting, and enzyme and hormone function. Calcium is required for muscle contraction and relaxation, and helps to regulate the heartbeat. It is also necessary for the transmission of nerve impulses and the secretion of hormones such as insulin. In addition, calcium plays a role in blood clotting, which is important for wound healing and preventing excessive bleeding.


Calcium deficiency, also known as hypocalcemia, can lead to a range of health problems. In the short term, it can cause muscle cramps, spasms, and twitching, as well as numbness and tingling in the fingers, toes, and face. In the long term, it can lead to weakened bones and an increased risk of fractures, particularly in older adults. It can also increase the risk of osteoporosis, a condition in which bones become brittle and fragile. In addition, calcium deficiency can affect the functioning of the heart and other muscles, leading to irregular heartbeats, high blood pressure, and other cardiovascular problems.

In children, calcium deficiency can interfere with proper bone and tooth development and can lead to a condition called rickets, which causes softening and weakening of the bones.

Benefits of Calcium Supplements

  • Improving bone health and preventing osteoporosis
  • Reducing the risk of fractures and falls, particularly in older adults
  • Supporting muscle function and reducing the risk of muscle cramps and spasms
  • Promoting dental health and preventing tooth decay
  • Lowering the risk of hypertension and related cardiovascular diseases
  • Supporting healthy nerve function
  • Reducing the risk of pre-eclampsia and pregnancy-related hypertension in pregnant women
  • Reducing the risk of colorectal cancer
  • Supporting weight loss and preventing obesity
  • Improving overall nutrient balance in the body

Research on Calcium and its use in specific conditions

Calcium is primarily known for its role in bone formation and metabolism. In fact, more than 99% of the total calcium in the body is found in bones and teeth as calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca10[PO4]6[OH]2), providing them with strength. However, calcium also plays a critical role in other bodily functions, including muscle function, nerve transmission, hormonal secretion, intracellular signaling, and mediating vascular contraction and vasodilatation. Calcium from bone tissue acts as a vital source and reserve for these metabolic needs via bone remodeling [15].


Zinc is a trace mineral that is essential for various physiological processes in the body. It plays a crucial role in many functions, including immune function, protein synthesis, wound healing, DNA synthesis, and cell division


Zinc is an essential mineral that plays a vital role in many bodily processes. It is involved in the regulation of gene expression, immune function, protein synthesis, wound healing, and cell division. Zinc also plays a role in maintaining healthy vision, taste and smell sensation, and skin health. Additionally, it is important for reproductive health, as it is necessary for the production of healthy sperm and plays a role in fetal development during pregnancy. Zinc also acts as an antioxidant, protecting cells from damage caused by free radicals. Finally, zinc has been linked to a reduced risk of certain chronic diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration, prostate cancer, and cardiovascular disease.


Zinc deficiency causes weakened immunity, slow wound healing, impaired growth in children, skin problems, hair loss, changes in taste and smell, cognitive impairment, and mental health issues. Pregnant and lactating women, those with gastrointestinal disorders, and vegetarians/vegans are at a higher risk.

Benefits of Zinc Supplements

  • Boosting the immune system
  • Supporting wound healing
  • Promoting healthy skin
  • Improving cognitive function
  • Supporting reproductive health

Research on Zinc and its use in specific conditions

Zinc plays a crucial role in maintaining the normal structure and physiology of cells, and recent studies have demonstrated its significance in cardiovascular health. Zinc has been found to have protective effects in coronary artery disease and cardiomyopathy. Intracellular zinc is essential in the redox signaling pathway, which is triggered by certain conditions such as ischemia and infarction, leading to the release of zinc from proteins, and causing myocardial damage. In these states, zinc supplementation has been shown to improve cardiac function and prevent further damage [16].

Folic Acid

Folic acid, also known as folate or vitamin B9, is a water-soluble vitamin that plays a vital role in many bodily processes. It is necessary for the production and maintenance of new cells, including the synthesis of DNA and RNA.


Folic acid is essential for numerous functions in the body. One of its primary functions is its role in DNA synthesis and cell division, making it critical for proper fetal development and growth during pregnancy. Folic acid is also important for red blood cell formation and the prevention of anemia. It is involved in the metabolism of homocysteine, an amino acid that, when elevated in the blood, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Folic acid is also important for brain function and mental health, as it helps to produce and regulate neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and dopamine, which are involved in mood regulation. In addition, folic acid is thought to have a protective effect against certain types of cancer, particularly colon and breast cancer.


Folic acid deficiency can lead to a variety of health problems, including anemia, which is a condition characterized by a shortage of red blood cells. This can cause fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath. Folic acid deficiency can also lead to birth defects in babies, especially neural tube defects such as spina bifida. In addition, it may contribute to depression, cognitive impairment, and other mental health issues. People with gastrointestinal disorders such as celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease, as well as pregnant and lactating women, may be at a higher risk of folic acid deficiency.

Benefits of Folate Supplements

  • Prevention of neural tube defects
  • Improved heart health
  • Reduced risk of some colon, breast and pancreatic cancers
  • Improved cognitive function
  • Management of depression
  • Improved fertility

Research on Folic acid and its use in specific conditions

Folic acid has FDA approval for the treatment of megaloblastic and macrocytic anemias due to folic deficiency. Folic acid is a water-soluble vitamin used in the management and treatment of megaloblastic anemia. This activity describes the indications, mechanism of action, and contraindications for folic acid as a valuable agent in managing megaloblastic anemia and preventing other disorders [17].

Fish Oil

Fish oil is a dietary supplement that is derived from the tissues of oily fish, such as salmon, mackerel, and sardines. It contains high amounts of omega-3 fatty acids, which are essential for maintaining optimal health. Omega-3 fatty acids are not produced by the body, and must be obtained through diet or supplementation. Fish oil supplements are available in the form of capsules, liquids, and gummies.


Fish oil is a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids, which have a wide range of health benefits. Omega-3s are essential nutrients that cannot be produced by the body and must be obtained through the diet or supplements. Fish oil has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties, which can help to reduce inflammation throughout the body and reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, arthritis, and certain types of cancer. Omega-3s also play a role in brain function and may help to improve cognitive function and mood, as well as reduce the risk of depression and anxiety. Fish oil has also been linked to improved eye health, including a reduced risk of age-related macular degeneration. Finally, omega-3s in fish oil may also improve cardiovascular health by reducing triglyceride levels, lowering blood pressure, and reducing the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Benefits of Fish Oil Supplements

  • Improved heart health
  • Reduced inflammation
  • Decreasing the risk of chronic diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and some types of cancer.
  • Brain function and mental health
  • Eye health
  • Skin health

Research on fish oil and its use in specific conditions

Although many health claims have been made about the benefits of fish oil, particularly its omega-3 fatty acids, most of them are based on indirect evidence. However, there is direct evidence of the benefits of fish oil in preventing coronary heart disease, and the American Heart Association has issued guidelines regarding the recommended daily intake of omega-3 oils [18].


Biotin, also known as vitamin B7, is a water-soluble vitamin that plays an important role in several metabolic processes in the body. Biotin helps to convert carbohydrates, proteins, and fats into energy that the body can use. It also supports the health of the skin, hair, and nails by promoting the growth and maintenance of these tissues.


Its main function is to help convert food into energy by assisting in the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Biotin is also involved in the production of DNA, which is the genetic material that provides instructions for the growth and development of cells.

Additionally, biotin is important for the health of the skin, hair, and nails, as it helps to maintain their strength and elasticity. Biotin also supports the proper functioning of the nervous system by helping to produce neurotransmitters, which are chemicals that transmit signals between nerve cells.

Finally, biotin plays a role in regulating gene expression, which can have a wide range of effects on the body, including the growth and development of tissues, the immune response, and overall health and wellness.


Biotin deficiency is rare, but when it does occur, it can lead to several health problems. The most common symptoms of biotin deficiency include hair loss, brittle nails, and a scaly red rash around the eyes, nose, and mouth. In severe cases, biotin deficiency can also cause neurological symptoms such as depression, lethargy, and hallucinations.

Certain conditions can increase the risk of biotin deficiency, such as pregnancy, breastfeeding, and long-term use of certain medications like antibiotics and anticonvulsants. Additionally, individuals with conditions that affect nutrient absorption, such as Crohn’s disease or celiac disease, may be at a higher risk of biotin deficiency.

Benefits of Biotin Supplements

  • Improves metabolism
  • Blood sugar control
  • Growth and development of the fetus during pregnancy
  • Treats conditions like acne, rashes, and dermatitis.
  • Nervous system function
  • Improves cholesterol levels
  • Reduces the risk of heart disease.
  • Thyroid function
  • Improves uscle health

Research on Biotin and its use in specific conditions

Biotin, also known as vitamin H or B7, is a water-soluble vitamin that has gained attention for its potential role in promoting hair and nail growth. Evidence from clinical trials suggests that oral biotin may improve the firmness, hardness, and thickness of brittle nails. Additionally, there have been case reports and series indicating that biotin supplementation could benefit individuals with triangular worn-down nails, trachyonychia, and habit tic nail deformity [19].

Acerola cherry

Acerola cherry, also known as Barbados cherry or West Indian cherry, is a small fruit-bearing tree native to South and Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean. The fruit is small, bright red, and resembles a cherry in shape and size.


Acerola cherry is a nutrient-dense fruit with high levels of vitamin C and other antioxidants. It can boost the immune system by promoting the production and activity of white blood cells, while its antioxidant properties help to protect against oxidative damage caused by free radicals. Acerola cherry also has anti-inflammatory effects that may help to reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Additionally, the high levels of vitamin C in acerola cherry support the production of collagen, which leads to improved skin health and a reduction in signs of aging.


Acerola cherry is not an essential nutrient, so there is no deficiency associated with its absence in the diet. However, inadequate consumption of acerola cherry or other foods rich in vitamin C may lead to a deficiency of this essential nutrient. Vitamin C deficiency can cause a wide range of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, muscle and joint aches, gum disease, slow wound healing, and increased susceptibility to infections. In severe cases, vitamin C deficiency can lead to scurvy, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by fatigue, skin rash, joint pain, and bleeding gums.

Benefits of Acerola Supplements

  • Boosting immune function
  • Fighting inflammation
  • Supporting skin health
  • Improving heart health
  • Boosting brain function

Research on Acerola cherry and its use in specific conditions

There was a study on PubMed that estimated the effect of acerola cherry extract pretreatment on cell proliferation and activation of Ras signal pathway at a promotion stage of lung tumorigenesis in mice treated with 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)3 [20].

Camu Camu

Camu-camu is a fruit that grows in the Amazon rainforest of South America. It is known for its high concentration of vitamin C, as well as other nutrients such as antioxidants, amino acids, and minerals.


Camu-Camu, a fruit known for its high vitamin C content, provides up to 60 times more vitamin C per serving than an orange. This vitamin C acts as a powerful antioxidant that helps to protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. Furthermore, Camu-Camu may support the immune system by promoting the production of white blood cells. Recent studies have shown that Camu-Camu has anti-inflammatory properties, suggesting potential benefits in treating inflammatory conditions like arthritis. Lastly, the high vitamin C content in Camu-Camu may also improve skin health by supporting the production of collagen, a protein that gives skin its structure and elasticity.


Camu-camu is not considered an essential nutrient, and there are no known deficiencies associated with its consumption. However, as a rich source of vitamin C and antioxidants, regular consumption of camu-camu or its extracts may help to prevent the negative effects of oxidative stress and free radical damage in the body.

Benefits of Camu Camu Supplements

  • Helps the body to fight off infections and illnesses.
  • Reduces inflammation
  • Promotes collagen production
  • Protects skin against sun damage
  • Improving mood
  • Protects against age-related eye diseases such as cataracts and macular degeneration
  • Supporting liver health

Research on Camu-Camu and its use in specific conditions

Pubmed research indicated that camu-camu juice could possess potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in comparison to vitamin C tablets that contain the same amount of vitamin C [21].


Elderberry is a plant that has been used for centuries in traditional medicine for various ailments. The fruit and flowers of the elderberry plant are used to make dietary supplements, syrups, and other products. Elderberry is rich in vitamins and antioxidants, including vitamin C, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, which are believed to provide numerous health benefits


Elderberry is a nutrient-rich fruit associated with numerous health benefits. Its immune-boosting properties make it effective in fighting infections and diseases. Elderberry also contains anti-inflammatory compounds that reduce inflammation and associated health risks. It’s a natural remedy for cold and flu symptoms and can help improve heart health due to its antioxidants. Additionally, elderberry’s antioxidant properties make it useful in skincare products, protecting the skin from damage and premature aging.


As elderberry is not an essential nutrient, there is no deficiency associated with its consumption. However, if elderberry is used as a supplement or for medicinal purposes, it is important to follow recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare professional to avoid any adverse effects.

Benefits of Elderberry Supplements

  • Helps protect against viral infections
  • Reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer
  • Antioxidant effects
  • Cold and flu symptom relie
  • Reducing inflammation and oxidative stress
  • Digestive health

Research on Elderberry and its use in specific conditions

According to a study by Pubmed, Elderberry extract seems to offer an efficient, safe, and cost-effective treatment for influenza. These findings need to be confirmed in a larger study [22].


Manganese is a trace mineral that is essential for many important biological functions in the human body. It is required for the proper functioning of enzymes involved in metabolism, bone development, wound healing, and the synthesis of proteins and connective tissues.


Manganese is an essential mineral with several important functions. It’s necessary for bone health, collagen production, and the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, and cholesterol. Manganese also regulates blood sugar levels, supports the nervous system, and acts as a powerful antioxidant to protect the body from free radicals. It’s involved in the synthesis of neurotransmitters and hormones, including sex hormones and thyroid hormones, and helps maintain healthy skin.


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Manganese deficiency is rare, as the body requires only small amounts of manganese. However, it can occur in individuals with malnutrition or malabsorption disorders, and in those receiving long-term parenteral nutrition without manganese supplementation. Symptoms of manganese deficiency may include impaired growth and development, skeletal abnormalities, impaired glucose tolerance, and altered carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

Benefits of Manganese Supplements

  • Supports bone Health
  • Activates blood clotting factors
  • Stimulates the production of collagen
  • Stimulates metabolism
  • Protect against cellular damage caused by free radicals
  • May help prevent neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s
  • Blood sugar level control
  • Reduce inflammation in the joints
  • Improves joint mobility

Research on Manganese and its use in specific conditions

Manganese is a vital nutrient that plays a key role in many biological processes as a coenzyme. It is present in all tissues and is a vital component in various proteins and enzymes. Mn is primarily concentrated in tissues that are abundant in melanin and mitochondria. Under normal circumstances, the liver and pancreas contain the highest concentrations of manganese [23].


Ashwagandha, also known as Withania somnifera, is an herb commonly used in Ayurvedic medicine. It has been used for centuries in traditional medicine to treat a variety of conditions.


Ashwagandha is an adaptogenic herb with potential health benefits due to its high nutrient content. It reduces stress and anxiety, improves mood, and cognitive function. Additionally, ashwagandha regulates the immune system and has anti-inflammatory properties, which can alleviate symptoms of arthritis. Ashwagandha also positively affects heart health by reducing cholesterol and blood sugar levels. It supports thyroid function and may help regulate hormone levels, leading to improved reproductive health. Ashwagandha may also improve physical performance, muscle strength, and sleep quality.

Benefits of Ashwagandha Supplements

  • Reducing stress and anxiety
  • Improve memory and cognitive function in people with mild cognitive impairment
  • Reducing inflammation
  • Boosting fertility and testosterone levels
  • Lowering cholesterol and triglyceride levels
  • Enhancing muscle strength and endurance
  • Supporting immune function

Research on Ashwagandha and its use in specific conditions

Studies by National institutes of health (NIH) on both animals and humans have indicated that extracts from ashwagandha root and leaves have significant anti-anxiety and anti-stress properties. Additionally, studies suggest that it could potentially improve symptoms of depression and insomnia, although fewer studies have been conducted in these areas. Ashwagandha appears to work by modulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary axes, as well as through GABAergic and serotonergic pathways [24].


L-theanine is an amino acid found primarily in tea leaves. It has been shown to have various potential health benefits due to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and interact with the brain’s neurotransmitters.


L-theanine has multiple functions that make it a popular supplement for its potential cognitive and mood-boosting effects. One of its primary functions is its ability to increase alpha brain wave activity, which promotes relaxation and mental alertness. Additionally, L-theanine stimulates the production of neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin, which are crucial for mood regulation. It also promotes the production of GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter that can reduce anxiety and promote relaxation. L-theanine also enhances cognitive function and attention, leading to improvements in learning and memory.

Benefits of L-theanine Supplements

  • Reduces stress and anxiety without causing drowsiness
  • Improves sleep quality and duration
  • Supports cardiovascular health by reducing blood pressure and improving endothelial function
  • May help reduce symptoms of depression
  • Enhances the immune system by increasing the activity of natural killer cells
  • Can reduce the negative effects of caffeine, such as jitters and anxiety, when taken together

Research on L-theanine and its use in specific conditions

Recent clinical studies have shown that L-theanine, an amino acid found in green tea and some plant extracts, may have promising adjuvant effects for the negative impact of anxiety and psychological stress on health. In this integrative narrative review, we aim to evaluate and discuss the effects of L-theanine administration on anxiety disorders and psychological stress [25].


Selenium is an essential trace mineral that plays a vital role in various physiological functions in the body. It functions primarily as an antioxidant, protecting cells from oxidative stress and preventing damage to DNA and other cellular components.


Selenium has several important functions in the body, including antioxidant activity, thyroid function, immune system function, and reproductive health. As a component of selenoproteins, selenium helps to neutralize harmful free radicals and prevent cellular damage. It is also necessary for the production of thyroid hormones, which regulate metabolism and other physiological processes. Selenium plays a role in stimulating the production of immune cells and cytokines, which regulate immune responses. Additionally, it is important for male and female reproductive health, including the production of sperm and the prevention of pregnancy complications.


Selenium deficiency can have negative effects on the body, as selenium is important for several physiological processes. A lack of selenium can impair antioxidant activity, which may increase the risk of cellular damage and disease. It can also lead to decreased thyroid function, resulting in symptoms such as weight gain, fatigue, and hair loss.

A deficiency in selenium can weaken the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to infections and illnesses. Additionally, inadequate selenium intake has been linked to male infertility and pregnancy complications in females. Chronic selenium deficiency may even lead to a serious condition called Keshan disease, which is characterized by heart problems and an enlarged heart.

Benefits of Selenium Supplements

  • Helps to prevent cellular damage
  • Reduces the risk of chronic diseases, such as cancer and heart disease.
  • Facilitates the production of thyroid hormones
  • Stimulates the production of immune cells and cytokines
  • Helps in reproductive health
  • Improves ognitive health

Research on Selenium and its use in specific conditions

Selenium plays a crucial role in supporting immune system function and has been shown to be a vital nutrient in preventing the development of virulence and slowing the progression of HIV to AIDS. Additionally, selenium is essential for sperm motility and may decrease the risk of miscarriage [26].


Probiotics are live microorganisms that are beneficial to the health of the host organism when taken in adequate amounts. They are typically bacteria or yeasts that are similar to those found naturally in the human digestive system. Probiotics work by restoring the natural balance of microorganisms in the gut, which can be disrupted by factors such as antibiotic use, stress, and poor diet.


Probiotics offer several potential health benefits for the body, with one of their primary functions being the improvement of digestive health. They help regulate bowel movements, reduce inflammation, and improve the absorption of nutrients in the gut. Additionally, probiotics have been shown to boost the immune system by increasing the production of antibodies and activating immune cells, helping to prevent and treat infections such as urinary tract infections, yeast infections, and bacterial vaginosis. Finally, probiotics may also have a role in managing allergies and eczema, as some studies suggest they may reduce the risk of developing these conditions and improve symptoms in those who already have them.

Benefits of Probiotics

  • Improved digestive health and regularity
  • Reduced symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
  • Enhanced immune function
  • Reduced risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhea
  • Lowered risk of vaginal and urinary tract infections
  • Potential reduction in allergy symptoms and eczema
  • Potential reduction in blood pressure

Research on Probiotics and its use in specific conditions

According to the panel’s findings, certain strains of probiotics have been shown to be effective in preventing antibiotic-associated and nosocomial diarrhea, treating acute gastroenteritis, and treating breastfed infants with infantile colic [27].

Collagen peptides

Collagen peptides are small pieces of collagen that are easily absorbed by the body. Collagen is the most abundant protein in the body and is found in skin, bone, tendons, ligaments, and other connective tissues.


Collagen peptide has a variety of functions that can benefit overall health. One of its main functions is supporting skin health, by improving hydration, firmness, and reducing the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. Collagen peptides can also strengthen bones and joints, improving bone density and reducing joint pain and inflammation. Additionally, collagen peptides contain important amino acids that promote muscle growth, aid in recovery, and improve exercise performance. They also support gut health by strengthening the gut lining, reducing inflammation, and improving digestion and nutrient absorption.

Benefits of Collagen peptides

  • Improved skin hydration and firmness
  • Reduced appearance of fine lines and wrinkles
  • Improved bone density and reduced risk of fractures
  • Reduced joint pain and inflammation
  • Improved muscle growth and recovery
  • Improved gut health and digestion

Research on Collagen peptide and its use in specific conditions

Preclinical studies have demonstrated that collagen peptides can enhance the functionality of the skin barrier, stimulate the production of collagen and hyaluronic acid, and encourage the growth and migration of fibroblasts. Consequently, they are employed as a bioactive component in nutricosmetic products [28].


L-lysine is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained through diet or supplements.


L-lysine is an essential amino acid that plays several important functions in the body. One of its primary functions is its role in protein synthesis, helping to support the growth and repair of tissues. L-lysine also helps the body absorb and retain calcium, which is important for bone health, and is necessary for the formation of collagen, a major structural protein in the body. Additionally, L-lysine helps to support immune function and has antiviral properties, particularly against herpes simplex virus (HSV).


Deficiency in L-lysine can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, nausea, dizziness, and decreased appetite. It can also contribute to the development of anemia, as L-lysine is necessary for the formation of red blood cells.

Benefits of L-lysine

  • Treat cold sores caused by HSV
  • Help to improve bone density
  • Reduces the risk of osteoporosis
  • Anxiety and stress reduction
  • Promote wound healing
  • Tissue repairing

Research on L-lysine and its use in specific conditions

A study was conducted to assess the efficacy of a blend of L-lysine, botanicals, and other nutrients in alleviating symptoms of facial and circumoral herpes. Results showed that, except for two participants, significant improvement in symptoms was observed by the sixth day of treatment [29].


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